Many factors can contribute to the formation of a bunion; for instance, heredity, environmental, or structural instability of the foot. The incidence is higher in women vs men (2:1).
Symptoms occurring at the site of the bunion may include:
- Pain or soreness
- Inflammation and redness
- A burning sensation
- Possible numbness
Bunions can be asymptomatic or symptomatic. The symptoms of a bunion may include a painful bump on the inside of the big toe. The pain may limit or prevent you from preforming your daily activities, or limit certain footwear options.
Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that’s needed. To reduce the chance of damage to the joint, periodic evaluation and x-rays by your surgeon are advised.
In many other cases, however, some type of treatment is needed. Early treatments are aimed at easing the pain of bunions, but they won’t reverse the deformity itself. These include:
- Changes in shoewear. Wearing the right kind of shoes is very important. Choose shoes that have a wide toe box and forgo those with pointed toes or high heels which may aggravate the condition.
- Padding. Pads placed over the area of the bunion can help minimize pain. These can be obtained from your doctor or purchased at a drug store.
- Activity modifications. Avoid activity that causes bunion pain, including standing for long periods of time.
- Medications. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as Ibuprofen, may be recommended to reduce pain and inflammation.
- Icing. Applying an ice pack several times a day helps reduce inflammation and pain.
- Injection therapy. Although rarely used in bunion treatment, injections of corticosteroids may be useful in treating the inflamed bursa (fluid-filled sac located around a joint) sometimes seen with bunions.
- Orthotic devices. In some cases, custom orthotic devices may be provided by the foot and ankle doctor.
When Is Surgery Needed?
If nonsurgical treatments fail to relieve bunion pain and when the pain of a bunion interferes with daily activities, it’s time to discuss surgical options with a foot and ankle surgeon. Together you can decide if surgery is best for you.
A variety of surgical procedures are available to treat bunions. The procedures are designed to remove the “bump” of bone, correct the changes in the bony structure of the foot, and correct soft tissue changes that may also have occurred. The goal of surgery is the reduction of pain and deformity.
In selecting the procedure or combination of procedures for your particular case, the foot and ankle surgeon will take into consideration the extent of your deformity based on the x-ray findings, your age, your activity level, and other factors. The length of the recovery period will vary, depending on the procedure or procedures performed.
It's important to talk about your treatment options with your doctor early on. If you are suffering from painful bunions or have any questions concerning bunions, call our office at (949) 364-2525.